Impact of Slaughterhouse Effluents on Groundwater Quality: Evidence-Based Assessment in Tudun-Wada and Kawo Residential Suburbs, Kaduna, Nigeria
Keywords:Effluent, Environment, Groundwater, Health, Pollution, Slaughterhouses
Pollution of groundwater by slaughterhouse effluent has been documented to have negative health and environmental consequences. Tudun-Wada and Kawo residential suburbs of Kaduna city are known to house slaughterhouses where effluent is mostly discharged indiscriminately into the environment. Eighteen water samples were obtained from six existing hang dug wells representing six sampling points with varying distances in the study area. Group A (K1 and T1) is located within the slaughterhouses, Group B (K2 and T2) is located 60-130 meters away from the slaughterhouses and Group C (K3 and T3) is 80-200 meters away from the slaughterhouses. Standardized methods were employed to analyze temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), bacterial oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate, sulphate, total coliform and faecal coliform of the sampled water. Results indicated that the mean pH values obtained in T1, T2, T3, and K1 are significantly (p> 0.05) different from each but are significantly (p< 0.05) different from the ones obtained in K2 and K3. Except for T3, which was in line with WHO and NSDWQ requirements, all of the groups had high feacal coliform and total coliform counts. Owing to the results recorded in this study, water drawn from hand-dug wells near slaughterhouses should be subjected to sanitary treatment before drinking and other uses. Again, we advised the state environmental protection agency to actively monitor the activities of the slaughterhouses and ensure compliance with health and safety standards.
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