Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification Activities: A Case Study from Borena District, North Central Ethiopia


  • Mezid Kassa Abebe Woldia University



Livelihood activities, pragmatism paradigm, borena


In Ethiopia, farm households are not adequately engage and pursue diverse livelihood activities to cope with various challenges due to livelihood asset crisis and persistent cultural bottle neck. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to identify the rural households’ livelihood diversification activities in Borena district, north central Ethiopia. The study follows a pragmatism paradigm with a cross sectional study design. The required data were drawn both from primary and secondary sources. The study used multistage sampling procedure, involving a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques to select 358 sample household heads. Household sample surveys, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were the principal means used to acquire primary data. In analyzing and interpreting the primary data, quantitative research techniques was employed. Percentages, mean and standard deviation were employed to analyze the quantitative data while thematic narration techniques were used to analyses the qualitative data. The result indicate that slightly more than one-third (33.8%), one-fourth (26.5%) and nearly half (49.7%) of the respondents were engaged exclusively in on-farm, off-farm and non-farm activities, respectively. Thus, policy makers need to intervene in the highest possible means of livelihood diversification while designing and reforming strategies related to diversification of livelihoods.


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The study area, Borena district, is located in South Wollo zone, in Amhara National Regional State (Figure 1.1). It is about 467 kilometers North of Addis Ababa and 284 kilometers South-East of Bahir Dar town (Regional Capital). The district is found between 100 34’ 2” to 100 53’16”N and 380 27’39” to 380 55’49” E (CSA, 2008). The area is bordered by Mehal Sayint district at the north, Wogidi district at the south, Legambo district at the east and the Abay River at the west.  The district is characterized by different landscape features: mountains (10%), rugged land (40%), flat land (20%) and valley (30%). Its altitude extends from 500 meters above sea level at the bottom of the canyon of Abay to 3200 meters above the sea level at the northeast corner of the district. As a result, it is characterized by four agro-climatic conditions: Woinadega (47%), Dega (20%), Qolla (32%) and Wurch (1%). The area receives an average annual rainfall of 600-850 millimeter. Its mean monthly temperature is 220c, which ranges from a minimum of 130c to a maximum of 27. 20 C (BDAO, 2016).




How to Cite

Abebe, M. K. (2023). Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification Activities: A Case Study from Borena District, North Central Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Issues and Climate Change, 2(1), 1–11.
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