Transforming Afghanistan: Enhancing Technology Access to Overcome Gender Discrimination


  • Shamsiya Nabizada Medical Faculty, Women Online University, Afghanistan
  • Tamanna Quraishi Medical Faculty, Women Online University, Afghanistan
  • Roqia Sadat Medical Faculty, Women Online University, Afghanistan
  • Atifa Kirmani Medical Faculty, Women Online University, Afghanistan
  • Zainab Hashemi Computer Science Department, Samangan University, Afghanistan
  • Nooria Haidari Education Faculty, Kabul University, Afghanistan
  • Nilufar Faramarz Physics Faculty, Kabul University, Afghanistan



Afghan Women, Empowerment, Gender Disparity, Socio-Economic Development, Technology Access


Gender disparity in technology access and empowerment remains a significant challenge in Afghanistan, particularly for women facing socio-cultural barriers. This study explores the perceptions of Afghan women regarding technology access and empowerment at Kabul University. Despite advancements in technology, Afghan women encounter obstacles in accessing and utilizing technological resources, limiting their opportunities for education, employment, and economic empowerment. This research aims to investigate the perceptions of Afghan women regarding technology access and empowerment, with a focus on identifying barriers and opportunities for improvement. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kabul University, involving 150 participants from diverse fields of education/employment and age groups. Structured surveys were administered electronically to collect data on participants' perceptions of technology access and empowerment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The analysis revealed diverse perceptions among Afghan women regarding technology access and empowerment, with significant disparities in infrastructure accessibility and the effectiveness of digital literacy programs. The findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to address barriers and enhance technology access and empowerment for Afghan women, ultimately promoting gender equity and socio-economic development.


Almarzouki, R. A. (2019). Investigating the influence of technology on Saudi women entrepreneurs overcoming gender discrimination (Doctoral dissertation, University of Reading).

Anitha, L., & Sundharavadivel, D. (2012). Information and communication technology (ICT) and women empowerment. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 1(4), 143-152.

Bibi, C. (2019). Information and Communication Technology and Women Empowerment: An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Policy Options, 2(1).

Borah, S., & Kalita, H. C. (2019). Information communication technology and women empowerment. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(5S), 365-368.

Khalili, B. G., Rahimi, B., Akrami, M., Hejran, M., & Hakimi, M. (2024). Assessing the Impact of social media on Youth's Entrepreneurship Development in Afghanistan.

Dahniar, N., Salam, S., & Suherman, A. (2021, November). Women’s Image on Youtube Content “Sexual Price Survey”: Gender Identity Perspective and Artificial Intelligence. In 3rd Jogjakarta Communication Conference (JCC 2021) (pp. 125-130). Atlantis Press.

Dyvik, S. L. (2014). Women as ‘Practitioners’ and ‘Targets’ Gender and Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 16(3), 410-429.

Gibbs, A., & Bishop, K. (2019). Combined economic empowerment and gender transformative interventions. Evidence Review Pretoria: What Works to Prevent Violence, SAMRC.

Shahbazi, H., Hakimi, M., Ulusi, H., Rahimi, B., & Quraishi, T. (2024). Exploring the Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Women's Empowerment: A Comprehensive Survey. EDUTREND: Journal of Emerging Issues and Trends in Education, 1(2), 108-120.

Lemons, M.A., Parzinger, M. Gender Schemas: A Cognitive Explanation of Discrimination of Women in Technology. J Bus Psychol 22, 91–98 (2007).

Mackey, A., Petrucka, P. Technology as the key to women’s empowerment: a scoping review. BMC Women's Health 21, 78 (2021).

Hakimi, M., Quchi, M. M., Hasas, A., & Fazil, A. W. (2024). The Transformative Power of Information and Communication Technology in Empowering Women in Afghanistan. Journal of Social Science Utilizing Technology, 2(1), 275-287.

Mazhar, P. D. M. S., & Goraya, D. N. S. (2021). Afghan women education: Bottlenecks & future. South Asian Studies, 1(35).

Wafeq, N. (2016). Shifting Perspectives: Changing Policies Promoting Women’s Empowerment in Afghanistan.

McBride, K., & Wibben, A. T. (2012). The gendering of counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 3(2), 199-215.

Niroo, W. T., & Crompton, H. (2022). Women's Empowerment Through the Use of Technology. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 17(2).

Putnam, K. A. (2019). ICT Usage among Afghan Women Business Leaders: A Descriptive Case Study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix).

Renan Barzilay, A. (2019). The technologies of discrimination: How platforms cultivate gender inequality. The Law & Ethics of Human Rights, 13(2), 179-202.

Tharu, M., & Yadav, R. G. (2018). Effects of technological development through electronic communication in women empowerment. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IJHSS), 7(5), 93-100.

Shirazi, F. (2012). Information and communication technology and women empowerment in Iran. Telematics and Informatics, 29(1), 45-55.

Vishkaie, R. (2018). Women, Gender Equality, and Digital Technology. In: Stephanidis, C. (eds) HCI International 2018 – Posters' Extended Abstracts. HCI 2018. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 850. Springer, Cham.

Ozkazanc‐Pan, B., & Clark Muntean, S. (2018). Networking towards (in) equality: Women entrepreneurs in technology. Gender, Work & Organization, 25(4), 379-400.

Tanwir, M., & Khemka, N. (2018). Breaking the silicon ceiling: Gender equality and information technology in Pakistan. Gender, Technology and Development, 22(2), 109-129.




How to Cite

Nabizada, S., Quraishi, T. ., Sadat, R. ., Kirmani, A. ., Hashemi, Z. ., Haidari, N. . ., & Faramarz, N. . (2024). Transforming Afghanistan: Enhancing Technology Access to Overcome Gender Discrimination. APLIKATIF: Journal of Research Trends in Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 41–52.
| Abstract views: 41 / PDF downloads: 15